I see LIPO batteries specify a C rating on the label.
What does that stand for and how does it affect the performance of the battery?
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The C rating is a multiplier that dictates discharge. You can figure out the maximum theoretical discharge by multiplying the C rating by the capacity. For example an 80C, 1300mAh LiPo can output 80*1.3 = 104 Amps. There is no consensus as far as I am aware as to what the letter C stands for.
It is worth noting that C rating is dubious - comparing the C rating between different manufacturers is unlikely to produce useful results as to which battery is better.
It's a measurement of how fast the battery releases power.
Mathematically, it's the number of times the battery can discharge in a single hour without damaging the battery / overheating.
It tells you how fast the battery can be discharged. The max amp draw is calculated with
capacity (Ah) * C-rating.
For example, a 1500mAh 75C battery can handle 112,5A max.
A higher C-rating reduces the risk for voltage sag, and a battery with too low C-rating can be damaged if you try to draw too much current.
C-Rating is an indicator of the continuous discharge rate of a LiPo. It allows users to easily calculate the maximum constant current you can draw from the LiPo pack safely without harming the battery.
For example, if you have a 3S 1000mAh 20C LiPo pack, your safe max current draw would be 1000mAh x 20C = 20A.