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I have built a quadcopter from scratch and I am at the stage of optimizing the roll, pitch, yaw angles estimation. To this end, I have implemented both Madgwick and Mahony AHRS filter and at the moment I am using the Madgwick filter to obtain the quaternion orientation at each sampling instant by feeding the filter with the gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer measurements. Before executing the filter, I remove the biases from the measurements (I have calibrated the sensors) and pass them afterwards to the filter following the North-East-Down (NED) coordinate frame. In addition, I use simple low pass filters to reduce the noise from the measurements.

I am facing certain issues with the yaw angle estimation. I have managed to eliminate a continuous drift that used to appear but my problem now is the following:

If the quadcopter starts with an initial pitch and/or roll angle, then the yaw estimation does not correspond to the actual rotation along the z-axis. For example, in case I hold the quadcopter at an initial 45 degrees roll angle, if I just rotate it around the x-axis and eliminate the roll angle, then the yaw angle estimate changes. The same is happening with the pitch angle, as well. After some internet search, I came across some sources stating the one should compensate the magnetometer measurements for the roll and pitch angles, but I am not sure what to do and fix this issue, which has appeared to be quite serious when trying to achieve full orientation control.

Should I follow the suggestion in terms of compensating the magnetometer measurements with respect to roll and pitch angles or are there any other intermediate steps that I should follow ?

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