In quadcopter dynamic equations of Newton-Euler formation that I have encountered in all academic publications,
torque equation is like this: enter image description here

The cause of gyroscopic effect is from the spinning of the four propellers
but i am confused about gyroscopic part of this equation, because, as you know,
in gyroscopic effect torque causes precession angular velocity perpendicular to spinning and torque vector.
In the equation above, it is written down as if the angular velocity [p,q,r] of the body frame is produced completely from gyroscopic torque caused by the spinning of propellers however, the torque applied to the rigid body itself also contributes to the angular velocity.

  • Is it assumed that angular velocity created by gyroscopic effect is much higher than the ones created by other factors so do they assume that precession is equal to the body frame a.v. ?
  • Gyroscopic torque is subtracted from total torque produced by propellers and the relation between movement of the body and applied torque to the body is established, but why is not generated angular velocity from the gyro effect considered because it will not be same with the situation where the same torque is applied but any gyro effect is not observed.


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