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By how much is signal reception degraded if I mount my RC receiver antenna next to the carbon fiber frame of my quadcopter?

I've heard that it's a major sin to do this because there is some sort of interference generated by the conductivity of the carbon fiber. Is this true?

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This is a huge question, which is why a complete answer is not really possible without specifics on your drone frame, antennas, antenna placement etc.

Long story short - Carbon Fibre is pretty much opaque to 2.4GHz radio waves. It's not interference, as such, it just blocks it, which is why guidance is always given to ensure your antenna placement is such that the frame is not between them and you in normal flight.

For a camera platform drone, like an Inspire, you can be confident of the orientation of the drone so the antennas will always have line of sight to you, but for a racing drone you need to make decisions based on "least obscured" placement, as well as robustness, which is why they are typically in the plane of the frame (but not attached along frame members) or well above the frame.

Pic from getfpv.com showing antenna in the plane of the frame:

enter image description here

And a pic of one of mine with a mushroom antenna raised above the frame:

enter image description here

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