There are two major reasons why aircraft and multirotor propellers differ
An airplane is always moving forward, it almost never has to generate static thrust. An airplane propeller is designed with this in mind and is efficient when moving through clean air. A multirotor propeller has the exact opposite airflow profile. Most of the time, it is moving very slowly or not at all, and is generating static thrust to keep the aircraft airborne. The blade profile is therefore significantly different to minimize blade stall characteristics and be efficient in this operating mode. Racing/FPV quadcopter propellers are also pushed at much higher RPMs than an equivalent airplane propeller, especially in the static thrust case. This requires a different airflow profile
An airplane rarel changes throttle position, and if it does, the throttle does not need to be changed right now but at some point in the near future, for whatever reason. Active braking is not employed (usually, folding propellers/motorgliders are an exception, but it's still not for responsiveness) and algorithms to accelerate the propeller up to speed uickly at the cost of efficiency are a waste. I'm happy to wait 1/4 second (electronically an extremely long time) for my airplane to spool up, even in an emergency stall condition.
Multirotors change their speed 4-8 thousand times per second (betaflight's 8k PIDloop with DSHOT600). When the motor is demanded to change speed, it is to do so right now, because another command is coming in 1/8000th of a second. Whether that be speeding up or slowing down, it needs to be changed for the sake of the stability of the aircraft.
The major contributing factor to this is the rotational inertia of the rotating mass (motor bell, magnets, propeller). Aircraft propellers are thicker at the root and are optimized for airfoil efficiency, at the expense of a lot of rotational inertia. A multirotor propeller is quite the opposite in that it is very light, is (mostly) optimized for rotational inertia, and is also generally made of a different material to handle smashing into concrete at 100km/hr (aside).
Historically, "Slowfly" aircraft propellers (GWS was the big brand here) were the first to be used in multirotors. Their blade shape, while not optimized for rotational inertia, is very good for generating thrust statically/at low speeds. They are not made to be spun fast (I'll show you scars to prove it), but this was before the age of ludicrously high RPMs on mini quads. They are also light as they are often put on lightweight, slow flying aircraft, as they were designed to.