I'm looking for some budget multirotor drone (up to $300) which can lift 500g-1kg of weight and has long enough range to fly a ~2 km radius, it should also have a small camera just for control. Is there a ready to fly model which I can buy, or can I somehow easily construct a drone with the following parameters?
The flight you describe is 100% illegal in the US requiring 107/commercial license + BVLOS waiver. BVLOS waivers are very rare, 61 issued searching the DB for "107.31" here: https://www.faa.gov/uas/commercial_operators/part_107_waivers/waivers_issued/. The rules are similar in most countries.
Your budget is off by a zero as well. Depending on your duty needs, I think minimum \$1k for the core + $ for peripherals.
A Phantom could probably limp that payload - but you need to dig into the powertrain math:
- What ratio of thrust do you want? Are you carrying a load form point A to B or will you require some performance?
- Weight of unit AUW desired? Payload and performance are correlated to thrust and other performance features.
- Flight time desired?
Camera for control at 2km requires high power VTX (FAA HAM license required). A 1 watt VTX in an urban environment will struggle to get you signal without a lot of extra gear (signal tracking from a ground station). Also, 1w is the legal max for a HAM / FCC licensed person, else you are 25mw (0.025 watt) limited and can't mod anything legally. To get more watts you need to dip into FCC Part 15 regulations, not cheap.
I see you are in Armenia - I don't know the local there laws but my international flight experience informs me that most of the world is either unregulated (3rd world) or as strict or more strict than the US.