Brushless DC (BLDC) motors can have a range of numbers on them:
- A four-digit number (e.g. 2212)
- A Kv number (already explained on this site)
- A number with N and P (e.g 12N14P)
What do they mean?
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This number describes the dimensions of the stator inside the motor. The first two digits are the diameter (in mm) and the second two digits are the height (again, in mm.)
Kv - or Kv - has some really good answers at the provided link so I won't go into detail here, but it is approximately the RPM per volt.
This describes the magnets present. The number before N is the number of electromagnets and the number before P is the number of permanent magnets. More magnets means more torque, but also higher cost and size.